World History_Racial Ideologies in North America and Latin America

작성일 : 2016-04-04 23:18 수정일 : 2016-12-27 00:02 작성자 : 임현진 (

From 1500 to 1830, North Americans and Latin American/Caribean had similar racial ideologies that whites are superior to blacks and these superiority idea was same not only socially but economically and politically. However in Latin America people rose up against this unequal ideology before the rise of nation states while it was after the nation arose in America.


For similarity, Both North Americans and Latin Americans believed that whites are superior to blacks and this kind of racial ideology affected the society as it was applied to political and economic status. In North America, the whites who were mostly Puritans from England landed by Mayflower in 17th century, were deemed superior to indigenous Indians and blacks who came as slaves. These slaves were traded from Africa to America in the triangular trade and their labor was put to plantation. In Latin America, the racial superiority was divided into highest Peninsular, and subsequently creoles, Mulattoes and zambo. And according to their racial superiority, the economic and political right was distributed: that is, peninsular had the most political rights and economic benefits while zambos had the lowest. This was because peninsular were mostly white governors directly coming from Spain and Portugal, which were colonizing the Latin world. People like viceroys took control of the natural resources or slaves in the Latin America and therefore gained political rights and economic power. Similarly, in North America, whites were economically and politically superior. Even after when they liberated from England through the independence war in 1775, right for politics was only for the whites and there were still black slaves.


[Photo of Simon Bolivar]


For difference, how the two regions tried to overthrow the racial ideologies and affect the society differed. In Latin America, liberation leaders influenced by the enlightenment idea tried to emancipate Latin American from the rule of Spain and Portugal. However at that time, because of Zaragoza Treaty and Treaty of Tordesillas, Latin world was not established as nations but rather as a one New Spain. In 1791, Haiti went through slave insurrection but the republic was set up later in the 1820s. In the 1820s century leaders Simon Bolivar liberated Gran Colombia, San Martin-Argentina and O’Higgins-Chile, and these leaders struggled against the cruel rule of the whites against colored. After independence, the concept of nation started. However, in North America, the independence of the blacks from the cruel rule of the whites came after the America liberated and became United States of America as a nation concept. America gained independence through independence war and then they proclaimed U.S. Constitution, and the afterwards slaves were freed through the American Civil War. Through the war, the blacks could abolish the racial ideology of superiority.



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